Difference between revisions of "Forgetting index"

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== You can choose the speed of learning ==
+
For the description of '''Forgetting index''', see [https://supermemo.guru/wiki/Forgetting_index_in_SuperMemo SuperMemo Guru].
 
 
Forgetting index is the proportion of [[Glossary:Element|elements]] that are not remembered at repetitions. It is usually expressed as a percentage. For example, if you choose the forgetting index to be 10%, SuperMemo will try to make sure that you remember 90% of [[Glossary:Element|elements]] at repetition time. '''The higher the forgetting index, the faster you learn, but the less you remember!''' You can choose the default forgetting index with '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Options]] : [[Learning tab in Options | Learning]] : [[Learning tab in Options#Forgetting index | Forgetting index (default)]]'''.
 
 
 
== Extreme values of the forgetting index can be frustrating ==
 
 
 
SuperMemo makes it possible to choose a [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] in the range from 3% to 20%. Very often users of SuperMemo ask why there is a limitation on this range. Many of you would be tempted to set the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to 1% or even 0%. This would only result in unnecessary waste of time. A [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] of 0.00% would mean that the [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] between repetitions should equal 0! If you decided to choose a [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] of 1%, the repetitions would be so frequent that you would probably be discouraged to never come back to SuperMemo, without ever discovering its power. In addition, the [[Glossary:Spacing_effect | spacing effect]] would make your memories very weak. This would shorten [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] further and add more work and frustration.
 
 
 
If you do not have much experience with SuperMemo, you should set the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to 10%. This value is important for psychological reasons as well. If the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] is too high, your repetitions will be stressful due to constant problems with recall. Your material will seem difficult to remember. This can be quite frustrating. On the other hand, if the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] is too low, your repetitions will be annoyingly frequent. You will experience a sense of wasting your time on needless repetition.
 
 
 
<div class="bs-callout bs-callout-warning">
 
'''If you feel you remember too little, reduce the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. If you feel you repeat too often, increase the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. In most cases, the value of 8%-13% will work best'''
 
</div>
 
 
 
== Changing the forgetting index ==
 
 
 
# You can change the default [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] in your [[Glossary:Collection|collection]] with '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Options]] : [[Learning tab in Options | Learning]] : [[Learning tab in Options#Forgetting index | Forgetting index (default)]]'''
 
# You can also change the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] of [[Glossary:Element|elements]] with the [[Element parameters|'''Element parameters''' dialog box]] (''Ctrl+Shift+P'') as well as with the [[Priority queue|'''Element Priority''']] dialog box (''Alt+P'')
 
 
 
== <span id="Forgetting indexes">Forgetting indexes</span> used in SuperMemo ==
 
 
 
It is easy to confuse some terminology related to the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. Here is a short glossary:
 
 
 
* '''<span id="requested_forgetting_index">requested forgetting index</span>''' - [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] that you want to achieve in learning. You ask SuperMemo to plan repetitions in such a way that your ''[[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]]'' reaches a given value. The requested forgetting index may be set for individual [[Glossary:Item|items]] (see: [[#individual_forgetting_index|individual forgetting index]]) or for many [[Glossary:Item|items]] at once. To change the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] for many [[Glossary:Element|elements]], you can use the ''[[#default_forgetting_index|default forgetting index]]'' or [[Subset operations|branch operations]] in the [[Contents|'''Contents''' window]] ('''[[Contents]] : [[Subset operations|Process branch>]] : [[Subset operations#Forgetting index|Forgetting index]]''')
 
* '''<span id="measured_forgetting_index">measured forgetting index</span>''' - [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] as it is actually measured at repetitions. It is displayed in the [[Statistics|'''Statistics''' window]] as '''Measured FI'''. Measured forgetting index is usually higher than the ''[[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]]'', esp. if the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] is less than 5%. This comes from the fact that SuperMemo imposes some limitations on the length of [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] in order to prevent excessively frequent repetitions. Secondly, if you delay repetitions, skip repetitions on a given day, or use '''[[Postpone]]''', you step away from the optimum learning process and inevitably increase the measured forgetting index. Finally, in an overloaded learning process, the measured forgetting index of low-priority [[Glossary:Item|items]] is higher by design (see: '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : [[Analysis]] : [[Analysis#Graphs|Graphs]] : [[Analysis#Forgetting_Index_vs._Priority|Forgetting Index vs. Priority]]'''). You can restart the measurements of the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] with '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : Reset parameters : Forgetting index record'''
 
* '''<span id="default_forgetting_index">default forgetting index</span>''' - ''[[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]]'' set for all [[Glossary:Item|items]] with the default individual forgetting index by means of '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Options]] : [[Learning tab in Options | Learning]] : [[Learning tab in Options#Forgetting index | Forgetting index (default)]]'''
 
* '''<span id="individual_forgetting_index">individual forgetting index</span>''' - ''[[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]]'' set for individual [[Glossary:Item|items]]. It can be seen in the [[Element data|'''Element data''' window]]. It can be set with [[Element parameters|'''Element parameters''' dialog box]] (''Ctrl+Shift+P'') or [[Priority queue|'''Element Priority''']] dialog box ([[Keyboard shortcuts |''Alt+P'']]). You can also set [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting indexes]] for an entire [[Glossary:Branch|branch]] in the [[Contents|'''Contents''' window]] with '''[[Subset operations|Process branch>]] : [[Subset operations#Forgetting index | Forgetting index]]'''
 
* '''<span id="expected_forgetting_index">expected forgetting index</span>''' - expected probability of failing to recall a given [[Glossary:Element|element]] if the repetition takes place at a given moment. Used internally by [https://supermemo.guru/wiki/SuperMemo_Algorithm SuperMemo Algorithm]. In Algorithm SM-17, retrievability is used instead (R=1-expFI)
 
* '''<span id="estimated_forgetting_index">estimated forgetting index</span>''' - value of the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] derived from the scored [[Glossary:Grade|grade]] on the basis of the correlation graph showing the relationship between the ''[[#expected_forgetting_index|expected forgetting index]]'' and the average grade obtained at repetitions ([[Analysis#G-FI graph |G-FI graph]]). Used internally by Algorithm SM-15. This concept is no longer applicable to Algorithm SM-17. However, SuperMemo 17 still uses grade-retrievability correlations in some contexts
 
 
 
== Retention is higher than 100% minus the forgetting index! ==
 
 
 
If you set your [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to 10%, you will remember 90% of the material at repetitions. This does not imply that your knowledge [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] will be 90% only. Your average [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] will be nearly 95%! This comes from the fact that 90% refers to the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] at repetitions, while the initial [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] right after the [[Glossary:Repetition|repetition]] is theoretically 100%. During the inter-repetition [[Glossary:Interval|interval]], [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] is decreasing from 100% to 90%. On average you roughly remember 95% of the material. The exact formula linking the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] with the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] is as follows ([http://super-memory.com/articles/theory.htm source]):
 
 
 
<div class="center">
 
 
 
''<span id="formula">[[Glossary:Retention|retention]]</span> = -([[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]])/'''ln'''(1-([[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]))''
 
 
 
{| border="1"
 
| align="center" | '''[[Glossary:Forgetting_index|Forgetting index]]'''
 
| align="center" | '''[[Glossary:Retention|Retention]]'''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''3%'''
 
| align="center" | '''98.49%'''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''5%'''
 
| align="center" | '''97.47%'''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''10%'''
 
| align="center" | '''94.91%'''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''15%'''
 
| align="center" | '''92.29%'''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''20%'''
 
| align="center" | '''89.62%'''
 
|}
 
 
 
</div>
 
 
 
<small>The reason that the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] is not equal to 1-0.5*([[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]) is that forgetting is approximately exponential in nature. Immediately after the [[Glossary:Repetition|repetition]], forgetting proceeds at the highest rate.</small>
 
 
 
== Do you know that...? ==
 
 
 
* you can sort [[Glossary:Element|elements]] by the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] by clicking the '''FI''' column in the [[browser]] (browsers are available from the [[View menu | View]] menu)
 
* you can search for [[Glossary:Element|elements]] with a given [[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]] by means of '''[[View menu | View]] : [[Element filter | Filter]]'''
 
* you can see how SuperMemo plots the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting curve]] graphs and derives the length of the [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] from the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. Try '''[[Toolkit menu| Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : [[Analysis]] : [[Analysis#Curves | Forgetting Curves]]'''
 
* you can see correlations between the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] and other learning parameters that have been measured in a [http://super-memory.com/english/ol/analysis30.htm group of 32 students]
 
* the concept of the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] was introduced only in [http://super-memory.com/english/sms.htm#whatsm6 SuperMemo 6 for DOS] in 1991. Earlier versions of SuperMemo tried to accomplish 10%. This value could not be changed. SuperMemo 1.0 and SuperMemo 2.0 used a hit-or-miss algorithm that was still pretty good at reaching 85% [[Glossary:Retention|retention]]
 
* [[#individual_forgetting_index|individual forgetting indexes]] are kept in the file [[SuperMemo files#elinfo.dat|''[INFO]\ElementInfo.dat'']] and the [[#default forgetting index|default forgetting index]] is kept in [[SuperMemo files#KNO file|''<collection name>.kno'']] file (see: [[SuperMemo files]])
 
 
 
== FAQ ==
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Tomasz Szynalski
 
|country=Poland
 
|sent=Oct 18, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''Question'''
 
 
 
What value of the [[Glossary:Forgetting index | forgetting index]] ensures the optimum ratio of ([[Glossary:Retention |retention]])/(time spent per day)?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
Paradoxically, the highest speed of learning can be accomplished ... without SuperMemo! In our daily life we pick up lots of facts that stay in our memory for long with few repetitions in lifetime! The problem is that these are usually not exactly the facts or rules that are critical to our goals. In other words, not the speed of acquiring new [[Glossary:Item|items]] counts but the speed of acquiring new [[Glossary:Item|items]] bearing a given content.
 
 
 
It is difficult to determine exactly what [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] brings the highest [[Glossary:Acquisition rate | acquisition rate]]. [http://super-memory.com/articles/theory.htm#maximum%20speed Simulation experiments] have consistently pointed to the value of 25-30%. You can even plot speed-vs.-forgetting graph using your own actual learning material in SuperMemo 98 or later using '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : Simulation'''. You will probably also arrive at similar results
 
 
 
As you perhaps know, SuperMemo disallows of the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] above 20%. This comes from the fact that you should aim at achieving high speed of learning combined with high [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] of the learned material. Setting the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] above 20% would be like giving up SuperMemo altogether and coming back to remembering only that what is easy to remember. In highly interlinked material where new knowledge depends on the previously acquired knowledge, high [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting rate]] can even be more harmful
 
 
 
Nevertheless, if you want to maximize the speed of learning with little control over what actually stays in your memory, [[Learning tab in Options#Forgetting index | set the forgetting index to 20%]]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Tomasz Szynalski
 
|country=Poland
 
|sent=Oct 18, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''Question'''
 
 
 
What [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] can I obtain with the [[Glossary:Forgetting index | forgetting index]] set to 9%? What if I then change it to 12%?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
For the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] of 9%, the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] should be 95.4% (see the [[#formula | formula]] above). For 12%, the same figure will be 93.9%. Note that if your material is very difficult, your [[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]] may be higher than the [[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]]. This comes from the fact that SuperMemo imposes some boundary conditions on the increase of [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]]. [[Glossary:Element|Elements]] that have been forgotten more than five times should be reformulated with a view to reducing their difficulty or increasing their mnemonic component.
 
 
 
If you initially set the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to 9% and later on increase it to 12%, you will probably start with [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] of 94-95% which will later gradually decrease to 92-93% (after the change)
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Peter Cool
 
|country=The Netherlands
 
|sent=Nov 6, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''Question'''
 
 
 
I started with SuperMemo 70 days ago (your French plus some words added by me; total 1000 words). In the first weeks I made a lot of mistakes so my measured [[Glossary:Forgetting_index | forgetting index]] was 20%. Although I make very few mistakes now during repetitions the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] decreases very slowly. Is this normal?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
The [[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]] includes the record of all repetitions made since you started learning. That is why it changes at an ever decreasing rate. If your performance is good and you would like to more accurately check your current [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]], you might reset the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] measurements with '''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : Reset parameters : Forgetting index record'''. It will not affect the learning process per se
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Manfred Kremer
 
|country=Germany
 
|sent=Sep 7, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''Question'''
 
 
 
I noticed that frequently I get optimum interval in the [[Element data|'''Element data''' window]] shorter than the last interval. Is it a bug in SuperMemo?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
No. If your [[Glossary:Forgetting index | forgetting index]] is very low, e.g. 3%, SuperMemo will often conclude that you will stand 97% chance of remembering a given [[Glossary:Element|element]] only if your next [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] is shorter than the presently used one. In such cases, it will not accept the new value and the new [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] will be at least 5% longer than the previous [[Glossary:Interval|interval]]. Please note that the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] equal 3% should only be used for selected high-priority [[Glossary:Item|items]]. Keeping the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] at this level throughout the [[Glossary:Collection | collection]] will make repetitions annoying frequent and ineffective
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=David Mckenzie
 
|country=New Zealand
 
|sent=Apr 8, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="Next day">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
Why does not the first [[Glossary:Repetition|repetition]] after forgetting occur the next day after the unsuccessful [[Glossary:Repetition|repetition]] (this is advised by Tony Buzan and others)?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
In SuperMemo, the length of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] is computed from the [[Glossary:Forgetting_curve|forgetting curve]] plotted in the course of repetitions. This is to make sure that a defined proportion of items is remembered (usually 80-97%). This proportion is determined by the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. Depending on the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]], the length of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] may range from 1 to 20 days, and is not set arbitrarily. It is computed from the record of repetitions and determined by the desired forgetting index ([[#requested_forgetting_index|requested forgetting index]] is the proportion of [[Glossary:Item|items]] that are not remembered at repetitions). While Buzan's recommendation is valid in many cases, you should not forget that SuperMemo computes [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] with a high degree of accuracy. Accurate [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] cannot easily be predicted without a computer
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=David Mckenzie
 
|country=New Zealand
 
|sent=Apr 8, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="Separate">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
Is there any point in keeping [[Glossary:Collection | collections]] separate?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
No. Once you master [[concepts]], [[templates]], and [[subset operations]], there is no point. You gain global search, global [[Using registries | registries]], global repetitions, global optimization, etc. This would not be advisable in SuperMemo 7 as [[Glossary:Item|item]] [[Glossary:Difficulty|difficulty]] measure ([[Glossary:E-Factor|E-factor]]) was dependent on the average difficulty of [[Glossary:Item | items]] in the [[Glossary:Collection|collection]]. Presently, the [[Glossary:Item|item]] [[Glossary:Difficulty|difficulty]] measure is absolute and does not depend on the context in which an [[Glossary:Item|item]] is placed. Only the length of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] will significantly be affected by the average difficulty of [[Glossary:Item|items]] in the [[Glossary:Collection|collection]]. However, this shall not bear dramatically on the [[Glossary:Acquisition rate | speed of learning]]. Especially that variable [[Glossary:Forgetting index | forgetting index]] for individual [[Glossary:Item|items]] makes it possible to set different first [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] for [[Glossary#hierarchy_node-or-branch-or-leaf|branches]] of the [[Glossary#knowledge tree | knowledge tree]]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Noel Clary
 
|country=USA
 
|sent=Aug 17, 1998
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="Leeches">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
I have created my own [[Glossary:Collection|collection]] on plumbing and air conditioning. My [[#measured_forgetting_index| forgetting index]] is quite high. Are there any tools in SuperMemo which could help me remedy this situation?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
You might want to use '''[[View menu | View]] : [[View menu#Other|Other]] : [[Leeches]]''' and locate the [[Glossary:Element | elements]] that cause most problems in learning. You must then go into your own mind to answer the question why these [[Glossary:Element|elements]] are hard to recall. Usually these are too complex, too long, too boring or too similar to other [[Glossary:Element|elements]] in the same [[Glossary:Collection|collection]]. You can also send 3-4 most difficult [[Glossary:Item|items]] to us for review to receive some suggestions. Read more: [[Leeches]] and [http://super-memory.com/articles/20rules.htm 20 Rules of Formulating Knowledge]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Matt Cassidy
 
|country=New Zealand
 
|sent=Sep 11, 1997
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="FI-Interval">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
Is it possible that with [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] equal to 3% I get the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] equal to 6 days?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
Yes. Especially if the material you work with is relatively easy. You should also remember about the random dispersion of [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]]. In isolated cases, dispersion might produce [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] substantially longer (or shorter) than the [[Glossary:Optimum_interval|optimum interval]]. For more read about [https://supermemo.guru/wiki/SuperMemo_Algorithm SuperMemo Algorithm]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
'''<span id="75 percent">Question:</span>'''
 
 
 
Tony Buzan claims that 75% of information is lost if not reviewed in 24 hours. Does it not defeat the validity of SuperMemo in which the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] is often longer than a week?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
No. Buzan's claim may refer to textbook knowledge or complex knowledge structures (e.g. large mind maps). However, it does not seem accurate in reference to simple well-structured material in the light of results obtained with SuperMemo. In SuperMemo, if the student chooses the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] of 95%, the typical value of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] falls in the range 2-5 days depending on the student and the [[Glossary:Difficulty|difficulty]] of the learned material. For [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] of 25%, the same [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] might be as long as one month, though it cannot be verified experimentally with SuperMemo which limits the range of the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] from 3-20%, which implies the overall [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] in the range of 89-99%. For more see: [http://super-memory.com/articles/theory.htm Theoretical background of SuperMemo]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
'''<span id="SM2">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
I used SuperMemo 2 shareware, and was accustomed to repeating forgotten [[Glossary:Item|items]] on the next day. It is very irritating that in new SuperMemo, I do not have this possibility
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
SuperMemo will schedule forgotten [[Glossary:Item|items]] in [[Glossary:Interval|intervals]] that are determined by the [[Glossary:Forgetting index | forgetting index]]. The greatest increase in the speed of learning in newer versions of SuperMemo as compared with SuperMemo 2 resulted from substantially increasing the length of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]]. The student may be left with the feeling that he is likely to forget the [[Glossary:Item|item]] again if it is not repeated on the next day. Statistically, however, he will forget no more than the proportion defined by the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. By reducing the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to less than 5%, the length of the first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]] is likely to drop to 1-2 days in most cases. Moreover, if you are particular about repeating a given [[Glossary:Item|item]] on the next day, you can choose [[Keyboard shortcuts | ''Ctrl+Shift+R'']] to manually modify [[Glossary:Item|item]]'s first [[Glossary:Interval|interval]]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
=== You can easily change the forgetting index from the keyboard ===
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=J.P.
 
|country=Czech Republic
 
|sent=Sat, Jun 16, 2001 16:59
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="5737-4493">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
I find that changing the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] of an [[Glossary:Element|element]] is pretty time-consuming without any keyboard shortcut
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
You can use use ''Ctrl+Shift+P'' to open the [[Element parameters|'''Element parameters''' dialog box]] and ''Alt+F'' to get to the '''Forgetting index''' field. You can also change it via [[Priority queue#Priority queue in SuperMemo|'''Element priority''' dialog box]].
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
=== Retention statistic is based on the assumption of regular repetitions and well-structured learning material ===
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=dansujp
 
|country=
 
|sent=Sun, Sep 16, 2001 3:07 PM
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="6918-2033">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
When I returned from vacation, I expected the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] to be something like 80% because I have not done any repetitions for two weeks. But it was exactly the same as before I left
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
The '''Retention''' statistic is derived directly from the [[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]] on the assumption of a negatively exponential [[Glossary:Forgetting_curve|forgetting curve]]. This curve is only representative of well-structured learning material. In addition, the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] measurements are averaged over all recorded cases. A break in repetitions will invalidate the statistic. Resuming repetitions is not a guarantee of accuracy as the large number of earlier repetitions will result in overestimating the [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] on a small-sample measurement. The only valid estimation of [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] after a break in learning is the one that follows resetting the past [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] record ('''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Toolkit menu#Statistics|Statistics]] : Reset parameters : Forgetting index record'''). This will result in gathering new data that will approach true [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] for the sample tested with accuracy proportional to the number of repetitions made
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
=== Use the default forgetting index to globally change the forgetting rate ===
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Jiri P.
 
|country=Czech Republic
 
|sent=Thursday, January 10, 2002 4:28 PM
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="6321-4530">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
What is the purpose of the [[#default_forgetting_index|default forgetting index]] available in '''[[Options]]'''?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
'''[[Toolkit menu|Toolkit]] : [[Options]] : Learning : Forgetting Index''' (default forgetting index) will be used in items that have their requested forgetting index set to ''Default'' (internally represented as zero). All items with the default setting will use the default forgetting index currently selected in '''Options'''. You can set the default forgetting index with [[Subset operations|contents and browser operations]] ('''[[Subset operations#Forgetting_index|Forgetting index]] : Default forgetting index''')
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
=== Topics also use a forgetting index ===
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=Terrence T.
 
|country=
 
|sent=Feb 14, 2004
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="20768-5627">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
What is the meaning of [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] in [[Glossary:Topic|topics]]? Should not this field be disabled?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
The '''Forgetting index''' field in [[Glossary:Topic|topics]] has no impact on the way a [[Glossary:Topic|topic]] is handled in the learning process. However, all [[Glossary:Cloze_deletion|cloze deletions]] generated from that [[Glossary:Topic|topic]] will inherit its [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]]. Also, all [[Glossary:Extract|extracts]] will propagate the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] to all its [[Glossary:Descendant|descendants]]. This way, you can reduce the [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] on very important articles to ensure better [[Glossary:Retention|retention]] of the derived material. Lower [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] will also be used to protect your material from postpones when there is a heavy learning [[Glossary:Overload|overload]]
 
 
 
----
 
 
 
=== A drop in the measured forgetting index is highly undesirable ===
 
 
 
{{Mail Header
 
|from=mahabharatta
 
|country=
 
|sent=Wednesday, March 31, 2004 6:28 PM
 
|subject=
 
}}
 
 
 
'''<span id="24805-2227">Question</span>'''
 
 
 
My [[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]] went up to 90%. I introduced a HUGE load of material over a short time period around 4 months ago. There was a 4 day burden of 900. In the last 3 months I've been introducing new materials sporadically, never more than 100 [[Glossary:Element|elements]] in one day, 300 in a week. During this period the [[#measured_forgetting_index|measured forgetting index]] has been dropping. Today it is 29.9%. Is this normal?
 
 
 
'''Answer'''
 
 
 
[[#measured_forgetting_index|Forgetting index]] of 90% tells you, you have introduced too much material at once. The time needed to recover will depend on the degree of [[Glossary:Overload|overload]] and the complexity of the material. With [[Glossary:Forgetting_index|forgetting index]] above 30%, your learning efficiency will not be much better from that achieved without SuperMemo. However, in the long run, if you make order in the learning process, this hectic period can still bring fruit.
 

Revision as of 13:38, 6 April 2019

For the description of Forgetting index, see SuperMemo Guru.